The name Elbrus is a metathesis of Alborz. The name Alborz is derived from that of Harā Bərəzaitī, a legendary mountain in Persian mythology. Harā Bərəzaitī reflects Proto-Iranian Harā Bṛzatī. Bṛzatī is the feminine form of the adjective bṛzant—"high", the reconstructed ancestor of modern Persian boland and Barz/Berazandeh. Harā may be interpreted as "watch" or "guard", from an Indo-European root ser—"protect". In Middle Persian, Harā Bərəzaitī became Harborz, Modern Persian Alborz, which is cognate with Elbrus.
- Mingi Taw – a Karachay–Balkar (Turkic). Mingi Taw means an eternal mountain or Thousand Mountain.
- Jin-Padishah – a Turkic name of Perso-Arabic origin
- Yalbuz – ice mane (Turkic)
- Ialbuzi – (Georgian)
- Oshkhamakhua – the mount of happiness (Circassian)